• 75%
  • 100%
  • 125%
  • 155%

Liquidation of the Senate

The Senate continued its work until 26 November 1940, when the People’s Commissioner of Justice issued an order, effective immediately, dismissing the senators.

The senators, even though having lost their position, remained loyal to the Latvian State, did not become collaborationists and did not cooperate with the Soviet government. The senators became involved in a series of political campaigns aimed at safeguarding and restoring the independence of the Republic of Latvia, for example, preparing a list of candidates loyal to the Latvian State for the elections of July 1940, signing the political memorandum of the Latvian Central Council on restoring de facto independence of the Republic of Latvia in 1944.

Repressions against senators

Repressions carried out also affected the judiciary. Of the 16 senators serving at the time of Soviet occupation and out of seven former senators then remaining in Latvia, only three stayed in Latvia.

All former senators were sentenced to death by being shot. Some of them died before the execution of the sentence.  

Died after deportation: Teodors Bergtāls, Kārlis Ducmanis, Jēkabs Grots, Osvalds Ozoliņš, Jānis Skudre, Fridrihs Vesmanis, Fricis Zilbers.

Senators in exile

Thirteen senators went into exile before or at the end of the Second World War.

The opinion prepared by the Senators of the Senate of Latvia in exile on the Constitution of 1922 being in force under the conditions of occupation was of special significance – it clearly defined the continuity of the Latvian State.

Senators who died in exile

In Germany - Aleksandrs Gubens, Jānis Kalacs, Fridrihs Konradi, Augusts Lēbers, Kārlis Puriņš, Voldemārs Zāmuels

In the USA - Rūdolfs Jānis Alksnis, Jānis Balodis, Maksis Ratermanis, Augusts Rumpēters, Pēteris Stērste

In Sweden - Mintauts Čakste, Pēteris Leitāns